Structural and functional disorders that occur as a result of disruptions or deviations in the formation and development stages of the head-neck and face region. Language, speech, voice, resonance and swallowing disorders can be seen in individuals with mouth and face anomalies. However, in adults, the structural integrity of the face and articulation-related organs may be impaired due to injuries, trauma, tumor removal, and surgical procedures. Language, speech, voice, resonance and swallowing disorders that may occur in these individuals should be intervened by speech and language therapists.

The following are some genetic syndromes that can cause oral and facial developmental anomalies:

  • Microcephaly
  • Macrocephaly
  • Pierre Robin syndrome
  • Apert Syndrome
  • Crouzon syndrome
  • Pfeiffer Syndrome
  • Carpenter syndrome
  • Franceschetti – Treacher – Collins syndrome
  • Goldenhar syndrome
  • Hemifacial microsomia
  • Hamartoneoplastic syndromes
  • Gardner syndrome
  • Papillon – Lefévre syndrome
  • Ellis–van Creveld syndrome